Ebola death rates vary depending on exposure. For example, EbolaZaire can have a death rate of up to 90 percent, while EbolaReston has never caused a human death. Ebola spreads quickly in family and friends because they are exposed to infectious secretions when caring for a sick person. The time interval from Ebola infection to onset of Ebola Symptoms is 2-21 days.
The time interval between Ebola infection and onset of Ebola Symptoms is 2-21 days, although 8-10 days are sufficient to diagnose the Ebola Symptoms. The most common signs and symptoms include:
- joint and muscle pain
- stomach pain
- lack of appetite
Some patients may experience:
- red eyes
- sore throat
- chest pain
- difficulty breathing
- difficulty swallowing
- bleeding inside and outside the body
The laboratory may show low white blood cell and platelet counts and elevated liver enzymes. As long as the patient’s blood and secretions contain the virus, they are infectious.
Yellow Fever Vaccination
Zika virus Symptoms
What are the treatments for Ebola?
At the moment, Ebola treatment is limited to supportive intensive care and includes:
- Balancing the patient’s fluid and electrolyte balance
- Maintaining oxygen levels and blood pressure
- treating a patient for any complicating infections
In October 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) organized an expert consultation to evaluate, test, and eventually license two promising Ebola vaccines:
- cAd3ZEBOV: GlaxoSmithKline developed this vaccine in collaboration with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Developing Diseases (NIH). It uses a chimpanzee-derived adenovirus vector with an inserted Ebola virus gene.
- rVSVZEBOV: was developed by the Public Health Agency of Canada in Winnipeg with NewLink Genetics, a company based in Ames, IA. The vaccine uses a weakened virus found in cattle; one of its genes has been replaced with a gene from the Ebola virus.
Prevention and Control
Good outbreak control is based on applying a package of measures including case management, surveillance and contact tracing, good laboratory service, safe burials, and social mobilization.
Community participation is key to successfully fighting outbreaks. Measures (including vaccination) that humans can take are an effective way to reduce transmission to humans. Risk reduction messages should focus on several factors:
- Reducing the risk of transmission from wildlife to humans through contact with infected fruit bats, monkeys, great apes, antelopes, or porcupines and ingesting their raw meat. Animals should be handled with gloves and other suitable protective clothing. Animal products (blood and meat) must be thoroughly cooked before consumption.
- Reduce the risk of human-to-human transmission through direct or close contact with people with symptoms of Ebola, especially their bodily fluids. Wear appropriate gloves and personal protective equipment when caring for sick patients. After visiting patients in the hospital, it is necessary to wash your hands regularly, as well as aftercare for patients at home.
- Measures to contain the outbreak, including the safe and dignified burial of the dead, identifying anyone who may have had contact with someone infected with Ebola, and monitoring their health for 21 days, the importance of separating the healthy from the sick, in order to prevent further spread, which is important for good hygiene and a clean environment.
- To reduce the risk of possible sexual transmission, based on a more detailed analysis of the ongoing research and deliberations of the WHO Advisory Group on Ebola Virus Disease Response, WHO recommends safe sex for male EVD survivors for 12 months from the start and hygiene practices or until your semen tests negative for the Ebola virus twice. Contact with bodily fluids should be avoided and washing with soap and water is recommended. The WHO does not recommend isolating male or female convalescents whose blood has tested negative for the Ebola virus.
- To reduce the risk of transmission through pregnancy-related fluids and tissues, pregnant women who are Ebola survivors need community support to attend frequent check-ups (ANC) to manage pregnancy complications and ensure their sexual and reproductive health care needs. birth sure. This should be planned in conjunction with Ebola and obstetric health expertise. Pregnant women should always be respected in their sexual and reproductive health decisions.
Ebola is caused by viruses in the Ebola virus and Filoviridae families. Ebola is considered a zoonosis, which means that the virus is found in animals and is transmitted to humans. How this transmission occurs at the onset of an outbreak in humans is unknown.
People in Africa contracted Ebola after coming into contact with infected animals found sick or dead, including chimpanzees, gorillas, fruit bats, monkeys, wood antelopes, and porcupines.
Human-to-human transmission occurs after a person infected with the Ebola virus becomes symptomatic. Since symptoms can take anywhere from 2 to 21 days to develop, a person with Ebola may have been in contact with hundreds of other people, making it difficult to spot an outbreak. Control and can spread quickly.
Experts suspect that both viruses are transmitted to humans through the bodily fluids of an infected animal. Examples are:
- Killing or eating infected animals can spread viruses. Scientists who have operated on infected animals as part of their research have also contracted the virus.
- Tourists in certain African caves and some underground miners have contracted the virus, possibly through contact with the feces or urine of infected bats.
How does Ebola transmission occur in humans?
When an Ebola infection occurs in humans, the virus can spread to others in several ways. Below is a list of the ways Ebola can and cannot be transmitted. Human-to-human transmission of Ebola can occur by:
- Direct contact through damaged skin and mucous membranes with the blood, secretions, organs, or other bodily fluids of infected persons.
- Indirect contact with environments contaminated by these fluids.
- Exposure to contaminated objects, such as needles.
- Funeral ceremonies during which the mourners have direct contact with the body of the deceased.
- Semen exposure of people with Ebola or who have recovered from the disease: The virus can still be transmitted through semen for up to 7 weeks after recovery from the disease.
- Contact with suspected or confirmed EVD patients: Healthcare professionals have frequently become infected while treating patients.
Ebola Outbreak Risk Factors
The risk of contracting Ebola is low. There is an increased risk of infection from:
- Travel to areas in Africa where Ebola cases have been confirmed.
- Conducting animal experiments on monkeys imported from Africa or the Philippines.
- Providing medical or personal care to people who may have been exposed to Ebola.
- Preparing for the funeral of Ebola-infected people.
Testing and Diagnosis
According to the WHO, samples from Ebola patients pose extreme biological risk. Testing must be carried out under conditions of maximum biological containment.
Before Ebola can be diagnosed, other diseases must be ruled out and the patient isolated if Ebola is suspected. Public health professionals should be notified immediately. Ebola virus infections can be definitively diagnosed in a laboratory using several types of tests, including:
- Antigen-Capture Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) tests.
- ELISA IgM.
- Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).
- virus isolation.
In advanced disease or after recovery, diagnosis is based on IgM and IgG antibodies. Ebola can be subsequently diagnosed in deceased patients with other forms of testing.
Precautions for People Who Have Recovered from Ebola
Various medical complications have been reported in people who have recovered from Ebola, including mental health problems. The Ebola virus can persist in some body fluids, including semen, pregnancy-related fluids, and breast milk.
Ebola survivors need comprehensive support for the medical and psychosocial challenges they face and to minimize the risk of continued transmission of the Ebola virus. To meet this need, a program dedicated to caring for people who have recovered from Ebola can be set up.
Ebola virus is known to persist in immune-privileged locations in some people who have recovered from Ebola virus disease. These sites include the testicles, the inside of the eye, and the central nervous system.
In women who became infected during pregnancy, the virus persists in the placenta, amniotic fluid, and in the fetus. The virus can persist in breast milk in women who become infected while breastfeeding.
Recurrence of symptomatic disease in someone who has recovered from an EVD due to increased viral replication at a specific site is a rare event but has been documented. The reasons for this phenomenon are not yet fully understood.
Viral persistence studies indicate that in a small percentage of survivors, some body fluids may be positive for reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) for the Ebola virus for more than 9 months.
More surveillance and research data are needed on the risks of sexual transmission and in particular on the prevalence of viable and transmissible viruses in semen over time. In the meantime, based on current evidence, WHO recommends the following:
- All Ebola survivors and their sexual partners should be counseled to ensure safe sex practices until their semen has twice tested negative. Survivors should be provided with condoms.
- Male Ebola survivors should be offered a semen test 3 months after the onset of the disease, and then, for those who test positive, every month thereafter until their semen tests negative for the virus twice by RTPCR, with a margin of a week between tests.
- Ebola survivors and their sexual partners should: refrain from any form of sexual intercourse, or practice safer intercourse through correct and consistent condom use until their semen has tested negative twice. After testing negative, survivors can resume normal sexual practices without fear of transmission of the Ebola virus.
Based on further analysis of ongoing research and considerations by the WHO Advisory Group on Response to Ebola Virus Disease, WHO recommends male survivors of Ebola virus disease have safe and clean intercourse for 12 months from the onset of symptoms or until your semen test is over negative. twice for the Ebola virus.
Until their semen has twice tested negative for Ebola, survivors should practice good hand and personal hygiene by washing themselves immediately and thoroughly with soap and water after any physical contact with semen, including after masturbation wash.
During this time, used condoms must be handled and disposed of safely to avoid contact with semen. Respect, dignity, and compassion must be shown to all survivors, their partners, and their families.
Infection is transmitted through direct contact with the blood, body fluids, and tissues of infected animals or humans. Critically ill patients require intensive supportive care. Ebola virus disease (EVD) is often characterized by sudden Ebola Symptoms like onset fever, severe weakness, muscle pain, headache, and sore throat.
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