Hemorrhagic Fever Virus – Symptoms, Causes, Risk, Prevention

Hemorrhagic fever virus (VHF) is a group of diseases caused by four families of viruses. These include Ebola and Marburg viruses, Lassa fever, and yellow fever. FHVs have common characteristics: they affect many organs, damaged blood vessels, and affect the body’s ability to regulate itself. Some VHFs cause mild illness, but some, like Ebola or Marburg, cause severe illness and death.


Hemorrhagic fever virus

VHF is found all over the world. Specific diseases are usually limited to the areas where the animals that carry them live. For example, Lassa fever is restricted to rural areas of West Africa where rats and mice carry the virus.


The risk to travelers is low, but you should avoid traveling to areas with outbreaks. Because there is no effective treatment for some of these viral infections.

Hemorrhagic fever virus (hemuhRAJik) are infectious diseases that can lead to serious and life-threatening illnesses. They can damage the walls of tiny blood vessels, causing leaks and affecting the blood’s ability to clot. The resulting internal bleeding is usually not life-threatening, but the diseases can be.


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Some Hemorrhagic fever viruses include:

  • Dengue
  • Ebola
  • Lassa
  • Marburg
  • Yellow Fever

These diseases are more common in tropical areas. There is no cure for the Hemorrhagic fever virus. Vaccines are only available for a few species. Until more vaccines are developed, prevention is the best approach. 

Although these are caused by several virus families, these viruses share some common characteristics:

  • They are RNA viruses, ie viruses that have ribonucleic acid (RNA) as their genetic material. These viruses are the most common cause of emerging human diseases. because RNA viruses change at high speed over time.
  • They are covered or encased in an outer layer of lipoproteins, making these viruses easy to destroy using physical (heat, sunlight, gamma rays) and chemical (bleach, detergents, solvents) methods.
  • They occur naturally in populations of animals or insects called host populations and are generally confined to the geographical areas in which the host species live.
  • They are transmitted to humans when a person encounters an infected animal or insect host. After initial spread to the human population, some VHF viruses can continue to spread from person to person.
  • VHF bursts in humans can be difficult to prevent as they can be intermittent and not easily predictable. 


Hemorrhagic fever virus Symptoms  

Signs and symptoms of the Hemorrhagic fever virus vary by disease. In general, early signs and symptoms can include:  

  •  Fever  
  •   Fatigue, weakness, or a general feeling of being unwell  
  •   Dizziness  
  •   Muscle, bone, or joint aches  
  •   Nausea and vomiting  
  •   Diarrhea  
  •   Symptoms that can become life-threatening  

  More-severe symptoms include:  

  • Bleeding under the skin, in internal organs, or from the mouth, eyes or ears  
  • Nervous system malfunctions  
  • Coma  
  • Delirium  
  • Kidney failure  
  • Respiratory failure  
  • Liver failure 

When to consult a doctor? 

The best time to see a doctor is before you travel to a developing country to ensure that you’ve received any available vaccinations and pre-travel advice for staying healthy. 

If you develop signs and symptoms once you return home, talk to a doctor, preferably one trained in international medicine or infectious diseases. Tell your doctor where you’ve traveled. 

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Causes 

Hemorrhagic fever virus is spread by contact with infected animals or insects. The viruses that cause the Hemorrhagic fever virus live in a variety of animal and insect hosts. Most commonly the hosts include mosquitoes, ticks, rodents, or bats. 

Some Hemorrhagic fever viruses can also be spread from person to person. 

Ways of Transmission

Some Hemorrhagic fever viruses are transmitted by mosquito or tick bites. Others are transmitted through contact with infected bodily fluids, such as blood, saliva, or semen. Some strains can be inhaled from the feces or urine of infected rats.

If you travel to an area where a certain hemorrhagic fever is common, you can become infected there, but you won’t develop symptoms until you return. Depending on the type of virus, it can take anywhere from two to 21 days for symptoms to develop.

Risk Factors

Living in or traveling to an area where a particular viral hemorrhagic fever is common increases your risk of contracting that particular virus. Other factors that may increase your risk include:

  • Working with infected people
  • Killing or eating infected animals
  • Sharing needles for injecting drug use
  • Unsafe sex
  • Working outdoors or in rat-infested buildings
  • Contact with infected blood or other bodily fluids 

Complications 

Hemorrhagic fever virus can cause: 

  • Septic shock 
  • Multiorgan failure 
  • Death 

Prevention 

Preventing the Hemorrhagic fever virus is challenging. If you live in, work in, or travel to areas where these diseases are common, protect yourself from infection by using appropriate protective barriers when working with blood or body fluids.

For example, wear gloves and eye and face shields. Precautions also include careful handling, disinfection, and disposal of lab specimens and waste. 

  • Get vaccinated: The yellow fever vaccine is generally considered safe and effective. However, in rare cases, serious side effects can occur. The yellow fever vaccine isn’t recommended for children younger than 9 months of age; pregnant women, especially during the first trimester; or people with compromised immune systems. There’s also an Ebola vaccination that protects against one type of Ebola. Check with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention about the status of the countries you’re visiting — some require certificates of vaccination for entry. 
  • Avoid mosquitoes and ticks: Do your best to avoid these insects, especially when traveling to areas where viral hemorrhagic fevers are prevalent. Wear long pants and light-colored long-sleeved shirts or, even better, permethrin-coated clothing. the skin. Avoid being outside at dusk when mosquitoes are most active and apply mosquito repellent containing 20% to 25% DEET to skin and clothing. If you stay in tented camps or hotels, use mosquito nets and coils. Protect yourself from rodents.
  • Store litter in rodent-proof containers and clean frequently.
  • Dispose of rubbish regularly.
  • Make sure doors and windows have fly screens that close tightly.
  • Keep piles of wood, piles of bricks, and other materials at least 100 feet from your home.
  • Mow grass tight and keep weeds within 100 feet of your home. 

Key Points to Remember

  • Hemorrhagic fever viruses are diseases caused by several groups of viruses. They can be mild or life-threatening. Many have no known cure.
  • These viruses live in animals, often rodents. Humans can become infected when they come into contact with an infected person or animal. They can also get the disease if they are bitten by a mosquito or tick that carries the virus.
  • There is no cure or treatment for these diseases.
  • Prevention includes avoiding insect bites and staying away from infected rodents.

We hope this article was helpful to you. If you have any queries regarding Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Symptoms, Causes, Risk and, Prevention, you can mention them in the comment section and we will get back to you soon.

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